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Price Elasticity Of Demand - Definition, Formula & Example

A product or service's unit sales are said to be price elastic to varying degrees. The higher the elasticity, the more flexible a company's pricing may be. Price elasticity is almost always negative, resulting in a decrease in the number of units sold as prices rise.

Jan 27, 202242.6K Shares926.1K ViewsWritten By: Alastair Martin
Jump to
  1. Price Elasticity Of Demand Defined
  2. Price Elasticity Of Demand Formula
  3. Example Of Price Elasticity Of Demand
  4. How Can You Tell Whether Your Product's Price Elasticity Is More Or Less Than A Certain Level?
  5. Is The Product A Necessity Or A Luxury Good?
  6. How Available Are Close Substitutes?
  7. How Much Does Your Product Actually Cost?
  8. How Long Will This Price Change Last?
  9. Conclusion

Some items' pricing are very inelastic, according to economists.

That is, a lower price does not lead to a rise in demand, and an increase in price does not lead to a decrease in demand.Gasoline, as an example, has a low degree of demand price elasticity.Drivers, airlines, freight companies, and practically every other customer will continue to purchase just what they need.

Other items' demand and supply are far more responsive to changes in price, making price changes have a substantially greater impact.

Marketing experts, of course, have a keen interest in this topic.

It's possible to say that their goal is to inflate the demand for the things they're trying to sell in the first place.They're able to do this because they've found a way to set their items apart from the rest of the competition.

A product's demand is said to be elastic if it is very responsive to changes in its price.In other words, the product's demand has been pushed far beyond where it was before.It is inelastic if the amount bought changes little when the price changes.The volume didn't expand much from where it had been before.

Introduction to price elasticity of demand | APⓇ Microeconomics | Khan Academy

Price Elasticity Of Demand Defined

Economically, the price elasticity of demandis a measure of how much more of a commodity consumers or desires when the price of that item rises or falls.

As prices rise or fall, supply or demand varies, and economists use price elasticity as a tool to explain these changes.

As an example, some items, like as petroleum, are very inelastic, meaning that their prices don't fluctuate significantly based on changes in supply or demand.Even if oil prices rise, the quantity of gas individuals buy is likely to remain the same.

While the price of certain commodities might cause significant shifts in supply and demand, this is not the case for others.

Price Elasticity Of Demand Formula

Unit demand changes by one percent for every one percent increase in price, and this percentage change in demand is known as price elasticity.Here's how it works out:

Percentage Change in Unit Demand divided by the Price Change

If this ratio is less than 1, the product is said to be price inelastic; if it is larger than 1, the product is said to be price elastic.When you can get the price elasticity to be precisely 1, you should be able to maximize revenue.

Example Of Price Elasticity Of Demand

Elastic products are those for which the change in quantity required or bought outweighs any change in price.(For example, if the price rises by 5%, but the demand decreases by 10%,)

Unit (or unitary) price elasticity refers to a product's ability to alter in price without changing the quantity bought.

As a last example, if demand falls by 5% for every 10% increase in price, the product is inelastic.

An example of the elasticity of demand may be found here:From $1.99 per bushel to $1.87 per bushel, the price of apples has dropped by 6 percent.In response, grocery shoppers increase their apple purchases by 20%. According to this formula, the elasticity of an apple is: 0.20/0.06 = 3.33.Apples are in high demand since they may be easily substituted.

How Can You Tell Whether Your Product's Price Elasticity Is More Or Less Than A Certain Level?

Isn't it obvious or at least hoped that your firm wants to take in the most moneyon the table?Because of this, you must make your product as inelastic as possible, raising demand regardless of the product's cost.In essence, you want your clients to be unable to live without your company, whether via specific features, your service, or world-class marketing.Depending on the kind of consumer, the inputs required to produce this phenomena may vary, but the mental process is the same regardless of the sector.To put it simply, how do you determine the elasticity of your product for each market segment?Some items to ponder are as follows:

Is The Product A Necessity Or A Luxury Good?

It is more difficult to cut down on necessities like fuel, electricity, and water than it is to cut back on luxury items like chocolate, food, and entertainment.For example, if the price of light bulbs went up by a few percents, you probably wouldn't stop purchasing them, but if the price of a vacation to the Bahamas went up, you may not book it.Unlike cruises, light bulbs may be assumed to be somewhat inelastic in this instance.

How Available Are Close Substitutes?

Raising the price of your goods will most likely cause customers to abandon it if your product has a lot of competition that is nearly identical.Product difference is all I'm going to say at this point.

A lot of product diversification is simpler in the SaaS and software industry than in the vacuum cleaner market.Consequently, it is imperative that you design features that are crucial to your customers and those your rivals lack.Be a part of your customer's background such that switching fees are so expensive that it's not worth the effort.

How Much Does Your Product Actually Cost?

Even if you sell the cheapest automobiles on the market, you will still incur significant expenses.Due to psychological pricing, a higher price leads to greater price elasticity.Even if the price of Paper Mate pens went up by 10% (a few cents), you probably wouldn't notice it since you don't even know how much a pack costs.That new automobile, which costs hundreds or even thousands of dollars, will be noticeably cheaper if the price drops by 10%.

When it comes to your items, you may take use of the sticker's real number by offering deals at various price points.When it comes to selling cars for $50, you're not going to do that. However, you may be willing to provide a car rental program that gives you the option of pricing your vehicles at a lower rate.Using Zipcar's hourly and daily prices, this is an excellent option.Additionally, Compete's enterprise-level subscriptions include an ecommerceSKU.

How Long Will This Price Change Last?

In the long term, all commodities grow more elastic.When pressed for time, it was unable to locate alternatives or learn to do without a certain item.In the case of oil, this is a typical illustration.People may moan about breakfast for a few days if oil prices increase soon (say, tomorrow), but they'll keep filling their tanks.Hybrid automobiles or smaller vehicles that consume less petrol may become more popular in the future.Even if you find that your product's pricing is inelastic, you should still consider the long-term effects of even a minor percentage-point increase in the price.


Consider price elasticity while designing your product and marketing strategy, as well as the building blocks for your pricing.To reiterate, the price elasticity of various client groups is a big impact.Thus, your marketing, pricing, and bundling must vary. When it comes to price, remember to include it into your company's long-term strategy.

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